ヨシフ・アントノヴィチ・ゴシケーヴィチ
Iosif Antonovich Goshkevich         (April 28, 1814-May 3, 1875)

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 ヨシフ・アントノヴィチ・ゴシケーヴィチ(ベラルーシ語:Язэп Антонавіч Гашкевіч;ロシア語: Иосиф Антонович Гошкевич 、1814年4月28日 - 1875年10月5日)はベラルーシ人でロシア帝国の初代日本駐在領事である。
 1814年、ベラルーシのゴメリ州ホイニキ地区ストレリチェヴォ村で、ロシア正教会の神父の子として生まれる。ミンスク神学校を経て、1839年にサンクトペテルブルク神学校を卒業。翌年から1848年までロシア宣教師団の一員として、北京に駐在。帰国後、ロシア外務省アジア局に入り、1852年からエフィム・プチャーチン海軍中将率いる日本派遣使節団に中国語(漢文)通訳として加わった。この後、日本人、橘耕斎から日本語を学ぶ。帰国途中、樺太沖でイギリス軍艦に拿捕され、戦争が終わるまでの9ヶ月間、艦内で抑留生活を送る。この間、橘とともに和露辞典『和魯通言比考』を作成した。

    Iosif Antonovich Goshkevich (Russian: Иосиф Антонович Гошкевич) (April 28, 1814, in Minsk Governorate – October 5, 1875) was a Russian diplomat and Orientalist of Belarusian descent. He graduated from the Saint Petersburg Theological Academy in 1839 and served in the Russian clerical legation in Beijing from 1839 to 1848. From 1853 to 1855, he worked as an interpreter for the Chinese language in Yefim Putyatin's embassy in Japan. Goshkevich then served in Asiatic department of Russian MFA from 1856 to 1858. Along with a Japanese co-author, Goshkevich compiled the first Japanese-Russian dictionary, which was published in Saint Petersburg in 1857.  Goshkevich also became the first Russian diplomatic representative in Japan, serving from 1858 to 1865.     He wrote several works about China, Japan and the peculiarities of Japanese and Chinese languages.


 1857年12月21日に在日本ロシア領事館に任命され、1858年10月24日、妻と母、宣教師イワン・マホフ、医師ゼレンスキーなどを伴ない、シベリアを経て、軍艦ジギット号で箱館(現・函館市)に着任。当初は実行寺を仮領事館とするが、1860年、現在の函館ハリストス正教会敷地内に領事館を建設する。また、敷地内には領事館員やロシア海軍のために付属聖堂(復活聖堂)や学校、病院も建立された。

 在日中は、サハリンの領有問題などの外交交渉などに精力的にあたる一方、写真術を伝えたり、日本の自然観察、動植物標本作成、気象観察など様々な取り組みも行った。1864年9月5日に、妻エリザヴェタが永眠。この後本国に帰国の許可を求める。1865年4月に離任し、サンクトペテルブルグに戻り1867年に退官。その後、ベラルーシ・ヴィリノ県(現ベラルーシ共和国グロドノ州オストロヴェツ地区)の領地に戻り、中国語・日本語の研究を行い、『日本語の語源について』を執筆する。1875年、ヴィリノ(現リトアニア共和国の首都ヴィリニュス)で死去した。現在、函館とベラルーシのオストロヴェツに記念碑があり、永眠した妻エリザヴェタの墓は函館のロシア人墓地にある。

    On December 21, 1857 Goshkevich was appointed Russian Consul for Japan. He arrived on November 5, 1858 aboard the screw gunboat (Russian "kliper") Djigit at his future office at Hakodate on Hokkaido, accompanied by wife and son.
Additionally he was accompanied by commander (lejtenant) Pavel Nazimov, the surgeon Dr. Michail P. Albrecht and wife, the priest Vassilij Emeljanovich Machov and the consulate employees. The consulate in Hakodate was at first provisionally housed in the Buddhist Jitsugyo-ji (temple) near Mount Hakodate, where also the consul and his staff lived, altogether 14 people. A new building was badly needed.  The construction of the new consulate was completed in April 1860.  The year before the Russian Orthodox Church in Hakodate had already been inaugurated, which was also founded on the initiative of Goshkevich.  It was called the Resurrection Cathedral and served consular members and sailors of the Russian fleet. Associated with the church there were also classes for the Russian language, a military hospital and also a cemetery was created.
    Goshkevich is one of the many Europeans who helped to spread photography in Japan. He also contributed to teaching the people in Hakodate weather observation, botanical specimen and so on.   Goshkevich's last years in Hakodate were overshadowed by fatalities and misfortunes. His wife Elizaveta Stefanovna died in 1864.  The following year the Russian Consulate was almost completely destroyed by a fire that had spread from the neighbouring British Consulate.  Goshkevich returned to Russia this year. He worked for another year in the Asian department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in St Petersburg; then he retreated to his house in the Belarusian village of Mali. He continued his work on "The Roots of the Japanese Language", which appeared only after his death in 1875.
    For his great achievement as a diplomat and a researcher of the Asian languages and cultures,  his monuments were built in his birthplace, Strelichevsky Selsoviet of Khoiniki District, Gomel Oblast and his final resting place, Astravyets,  Grodno Region of Belarus.  In Hakodate, Japan, there are also the bust of Goshkevich and the grave of his wife Elizabeth.


 

picture of Mr. and Mrs. Goshkevich

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Japanese - Russian dictionary published by Goshkevich

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inside of the church

portrait of Cosulate Goshkevich

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inside of the church

the bust of Goshkevich in Astravyets, Belalus

monument in his birthplace (Стреличево)

the bust of Goshkevich in Hakodate, Japan

the grave of his wife Elizabeth in Hakkodate